Vaccine Ingredients: Are They Safe During Pregnancy?

I’m a label reader. I’m the mom you see standing in the grocery store aisle staring at the back of a box for 5 minutes. I’m the person in the restaurant who asks for the allergen menu which lists all the ingredients. It annoys some people, but those around me have just learned that it’s part of who I am.

Those who don’t understand like to call it paranoia. But, if they knew what I know about substances like food dyes, aluminum, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, it wouldn’t seem much like paranoia after all. So, it seemed only natural for me to be curious about the ingredients that went into the medications they wanted to inject into my body while carrying my babies. A nurse once told me that vaccines were “mostly water”, so I realized I’d have to do the digging myself, and what I found honestly shocked me. Because there are so many vaccines administered during childhood, today we will be looking at the ones recommended during pregnancy.

So, let’s just start in the womb, because that’s where vaccination begins.

Do you read labels like me? I love knowing the ingredients going into my body. Find out what EXACTLY is in those shots recommended during #pregnancy.

Which Vaccines are Recommended During Pregnancy?

Tdap

The CDC recommends that all pregnant women receive the Tdap vaccine, regardless of their last dose, sometime in their third trimester – preferably between 27 and 33 weeks[1]. Tdap is a three-in-one vaccine booster used to protect against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis and, according to the CDC, there are two brand options available in the United States[2]. The two brands are Adacel by Sanofi Pasteur and Boostrix by GlaxoSmithKline.

Adacel Ingredients:

  • Aluminum Phosphate: Added as an adjuvant – which is intended to increase the body’s immune response. Children exposed to aluminum adjuvants in early life are at a greater risk of body-wide inflammation and the development of autoimmune disease[3]. In addition, when the maternal aluminum load is increased, there is greater risk of the baby developing a heart defect[4].
  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].
  • 2-Phenoxyethanol: One of the three approved preservatives added to vaccines to prolong shelf-life. In 2008, the FDA issued a warning to breastfeeding mothers not to purchase a nipple cream containing phenoxyethanol. Their reasoning for this was because phenoxyethanol was known to suppress the central nervous system in young babies[7].
  • Stainer-Scholte Medium: This is the preferred medium used to grow the pertussis bacteria.
  • Casamino Acids: A mixture of amino acids and food proteins derived from casein. It has been determined that food proteins administered through vaccination has the potential to cause a “hypersensitive” reaction, which may result in an allergy to dairy[8].
  • Dimethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin: Added to Stainer-Scholte Medium to help boost growth of pertussis bacteria. Cyclodextrins, even at low concentrations, have the ability to induce hearing loss, kidney and liver damage, and even death[9].
  • Glutaraldehyde: A transparent liquid also used to help inactivate viruses, glutaraldehyde is used in many vaccines. The CDC recognizes this substance’s ability to cause asthma and difficulty breathing, lung and throat irritation, among other nasty side effects[10]. OSHA recognizes glutaraldehyde as a “toxic chemical” that can lead to chronic effects, even at small doses[11].
  • Modified Mueller-Miller: Another growth medium used to grow the tetanus bacterium.
  • Casamino Acid Medium Without Beef Heart Infusion: Another dose of amino acids and food proteins – this time without the beef heart.
  • Ammonium Sulfate: Used during the purification process. This compound is most commonly used as a fertilizer for soil, and is considered harmful and irritating to sensitive areas[12].
  • Modified Mueller’s Growth Medium: Another medium used to grow the tetanus bacteria.

Boostrix Ingredients:

  • Modified Latham Medium Derived from Bovine Casein: A medium used to grow the tetanus bacteria – is also a source of casein food proteins.
  • Fenton Medium Containing a Bovine Extract: Used as a culture media to grow diphtheria bacteria – also a source of casein food proteins.
  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].
  • Modified Stainer-Scholte Liquid Medium: The preferred medium used to grow the pertussis bacteria.
  • Glutaraldehyde: A transparent liquid also used to help inactivate viruses, glutaraldehyde is used in many vaccines. The CDC recognizes this substance’s ability to cause asthma and difficulty breathing, lung and throat irritation, among other nasty side effects[9]. OSHA recognizes glutaraldehyde as a “toxic chemical” that can lead to chronic effects, even at small doses[10].
  • Aluminum Hydroxide: Added as an adjuvant – which is intended to increase the body’s immune response. Aluminum hydroxide has been shown to induce chronic epilepsy, developmental impairment, muscle disease, and neurotoxicity[13].
  • Sodium Chloride: Commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[14].

Flu

The CDC also recommends that all pregnant women receive the annual flu vaccine, which they assure is completely safe[17]. The flu vaccine is used to protect against influenza, and according to the CDC, 9 brand options are available in the United States[2]. The brands are Afluria, Flucelvax, Fluvirin, and Fluad by Seqirus, Fluarix by GlaxoSmithKline, Flublok and Fluzone by Sanofi, FluLaval by Biomedical Corp of Quebec, and FluMist by AstraZeneca. FluMist is not recommended for pregnant women.

Afluria Ingredients:

  • Sodium Chloride: Commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[13].
  • Monobasic Sodium Phosphate: Used as an emulsifier to keep vaccine ingredients from separating. Phosphate additives have been linked to heart damage and kidney failure[18].
  • Dibasic Sodium Phosphate: May lead to chronic kidney disease, liver failure, faster aging, and other chronic diseases[19].
  • Monobasic Potassium Phosphate: When injected, potassium phosphate can alter heart rate, cause a light-headed feeling, drowsiness, and cell toxicity or death[20].
  • Potassium Chloride: Potassium chloride is often used as part of the three-dose series used when administering lethal injection – it is the component used to stop the heart. It is also used to induce select second-trimester abortions[21]. Not much information exists about its safety in vaccines.
  • Calcium Chloride: Calcium chloride is used as a medium nutrient when growing viruses to be used for vaccines. Has shown the ability to mutate cells in mammals, and could lead to cancer[22]. Limited data exists on its safety in vaccines.
  • Sodium Taurodeoxycholate: Bile acid added as another medium nutrient. Not much information exists about its safety in vaccines.
  • Ovalbumin: The main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Sucrose: Used as a stabilizer, sucrose is added to vaccines to help protect the formulation from environmental conditions. Sucrose is another form of common table sugar, and not much information exists on its safety in vaccines.
  • Neomycin Sulfate: A type of antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect if from bacterial contamination. One of the more serious risks associated with this antibiotic is neomycin toxicity, which can lead to kidney failure and permanent hearing loss[24].
  • Polymyxin-B: Another antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect from bacterial contamination. This antibiotic has been known to damage the kidneys, cause neurotoxic effects, deafness, visual disturbances, and seizures[25].
  • Beta-Propiolactone: Used to inactivate or kill certain viruses within a vaccine. Beta-Propiolactone is recognized by the American Cancer Society as a known human carcinogen[6]. In humans, no information is known about its potential long-term complications[26].
  • Thimerosal: Composed of mercury, thimerosal is a preservative added to prolong the shelf-life of vaccines. Documentation of its potential health hazard to humans has been documented since the 1930s. When its toxicity was recognized, the FDA worked to rid the ingredient from topical products[27]. Adverse health effects linked to thimerosal include autism, tics, emotional disturbances, heart problems, and other neurological disorders[28,29].

Flucelvax Ingredients:

  • Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cell Protein: MDCK is the medium used to grow the influenza virus. When it comes to this medium, up to 84% of all patients report some type of adverse event, ranging from a sore, bruised arm to bodywide soreness, sweating, chills, weakness, nausea, irritability, and vomiting[30].
  • Protein Other Than HA: This ingredient helps vaccine manufacturers cover multiple influenza strains in one vaccine. While this ingredient is not very informative, one can gather that the manufacturer either used NA or M2 proteins, neither of which are considered neutralizing by traditional standards[31].
  • MDCK Cell DNA: In the 1980s, scientists published three cell lines, one from a cow, one from a sheep, and one from a dog. These cells have been cloned, separated, and ordered in many different ways to make today’s MDCK cell line[32].
  • Polysorbate 80: Used as a stabilizer to help keep the vaccine at the chosen consistency. Animal tests have found polysorbate 80 capable of causing reproductive effects and even cancer[15]. In the unborn, it has shown ability to impact reproductive function, such as uterine and ovarian weight[16].
  • Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide: This ingredient is included as a buffer to help extract DNA. Not much information exists about its safety in humans, but according to the Safety Data Sheet, it can be toxic to the liver, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and the organs[33]. Exposure to this substance by the young can also result in developmental toxicity[34].
  • Beta-Propiolactone: Used to inactivate or kill certain viruses within a vaccine. Beta-Propiolactone is recognized by the American Cancer Society as a known human carcinogen[6]. In humans, no information is known about its potential long-term complications[26].

Fluvirin Ingredients:

  • Ovalbumin: The main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Polymyxin-B: Another antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect from bacterial contamination. This antibiotic has been known to damage the kidneys, cause neurotoxic effects, deafness, visual disturbances, and seizures[25].
  • Neomycin Sulfate: A type of antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect if from bacterial contamination. One of the more serious risks associated with this antibiotic is neomycin toxicity, which can lead to kidney failure and permanent hearing loss[24].
  • Beta-Propiolactone: Used to inactivate or kill certain viruses within a vaccine. Beta-Propiolactone is recognized by the American Cancer Society as a known human carcinogen[6]. In humans, no information is known about its potential long-term complications[26].
  • Nonylphenol: Not much information is available as to why this ingredient is included in the vaccine. Nonylphenol, or NPEOs for short, have barely been studied for their effects on human health. Preliminary findings have discovered that this substance may influence the development of the nervous and immune system. And, because of their estrogenic properties, NPEOs are quite possibly catastrophic to the human hormone system[35].
  • Ethoxylate: Also known as Octoxynol-10 and Triton X-100, this is used to help inactivate the virus. Not much information exists about ethoxylate’s safety in vaccines.
  • Thimerosal: Composed of mercury, thimerosal is a preservative added to prolong the shelf-life of vaccines. Documentation of its potential health hazard to humans has been documented since the 1930s. When its toxicity was recognized, the FDA worked to rid the ingredient from topical products[27]. Adverse health effects linked to thimerosal include autism, tics, emotional disturbances, heart problems, and other neurological disorders[28,29].

Fluad Ingredients:

  • Squalene: Included as an adjuvant, squalene helps stimulate an immune response. Squalene is considered a potential culprit causing Gulf War Syndrome a medical condition that affected many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. This ingredient was included in the mandatory, and experimental, anthrax vaccine – and squalene antibodies were detected in every single Gulf War Syndrome sufferer[36,37]. Symptoms of Gulf War Syndrome include chronic headaches, fatigue, and other skin and respiratory issues.
  • Polysorbate 80: Used as a stabilizer to help keep the vaccine at the chosen consistency. Animal tests have found polysorbate 80 capable of causing reproductive effects and even cancer[15]. In the unborn, it has shown ability to impact reproductive function, such as uterine and ovarian weight[16].
  • Sorbitan Trioleate: Included as another adjuvant, sorbitan trioleate helps stimulate an immune response. Not much information exists on this ingredient’s safety in vaccines.
  • Sodium Citrate Dehydrate: Typically included as an emulsifier to keep the vaccine ingredients from separating. Not much information exists on sodium citrate’s safety in vaccines.
  • Citric Acid Monohydrate: Classified as a hazardous substance by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Citric Acid Monohydrate can be damaging to health and could produce spontaneous bleeding, pain, systemic problems, and inflammation[38].
  • Neomycin: A type of antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect it from bacterial contamination. One of the more serious risks associated with this antibiotic is neomycin toxicity, which can lead to kidney failure and permanent hearing loss[24].
  • Kanamycin: Another antibiotic added to help protect the vaccine from bacterial contamination. Kanamycin has been classified as a cochleotoxic antibiotic, meaning that it is damaging to the ears and can result in permanent hearing loss[39].
  • Barium: One of the eight heavy metals. Barium exposure can cause breathing difficulties, increased blood pressure, heart rhythm changes, stomach irritation, muscle weakness, changes in nerve reflexes, and swelling of the brain, liver, kidney, and heart[40].
  • Egg Proteins: Another word for ovalbumin, which is the main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide: This ingredient is included as a buffer to help extract DNA. Not much information exists about its safety in humans, but according to the Safety Data Sheet, it can be toxic to the liver, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and the organs[33]. Exposure to this substance by the young can also result in developmental toxicity[34].
  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].

Fluarix Ingredients:

  • Octoxynol-10: Also known as ethoxylate and Triton X-100, this is used to help inactivate the virus. Not much information exists about ethoxylate’s safety in vaccines.
  • A-Tocopheryl Hydrogen Succinate: Included as an adjuvant to help stimulate an immune response. Not much information exists about this ingredient’s safety in vaccines.
  • Polysorbate 80: Used as a stabilizer to help keep the vaccine at the chosen consistency. Animal tests have found polysorbate 80 capable of causing reproductive effects and even cancer[15]. In the unborn, it has shown ability to impact reproductive function, such as uterine and ovarian weight[16].
  • Hydrocortisone: A type of steroid. Steroid use as been associated with gastrointestinal damage, bleeding, and inflammation, as well as acute pancreatitis[41,42].
  • Gentamicin Sulfate: A type of antibiotic added to the vaccine to protect it from bacterial contamination. The use of gentamicin has been associated with eye damage, vision loss, and nerve separation in the eyes[43].
  • Ovalbumin: The main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].
  • Sodium Deoxycholate: A type of detergent added to “disrupt” the particles within the vaccine. Sodium deoxycholate has shown ability to break down cells and may even lead to the development of tumors and cancer[44,45].
  • Sodium Phosphate-Buffered Isotonic Sodium Chloride: Sodium phosphate is used as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating. Phosphate additives have been linked to heart damage and kidney failure[18]. Sodium chloride is commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[14].

Flublok Ingredients:

  • Sodium Chloride: Commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[14].
  • Monobasic Sodium Phosphate: Used as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating. Phosphate additives have been linked to heart damage and kidney failure[18].
  • Dibasic Sodium PhosphateMay lead to chronic kidney disease, liver failure, faster aging, and other chronic diseases[19].
  • Polysorbate 20: Included as an emulsifying agent to help keep vaccine ingredients from separating. This ingredient actually has a low toxicity concern to humans, and only extremely high doses are correlated with health effects[46].
  • Baculovirus and Spodoptera Frugiperda Cell Proteins and Baculovirus and Cellular DNA: Baculovirus is a virus that naturally infects insects and is used to transport pathogens within the vaccine to incite an immune response. Non-genetically modified baculovirus is completely harmless to humans, but the addition of mammalian promoters in the laboratory has led to the potential of human expression of foreign genes[47]. Spodoptera is another insect virus, and not as much information is available regarding its safety as a vaccine vector.
  • Triton X-100: Also known as ethoxylate and Octoxynol-10, this is used to help inactivate the virus. Not much information exists about Triton X-100s safety in vaccines.
  • Lipids: Added as an adjuvant to help stimulate an immune response, lipids have been associated with local tissue damage, inflammation, autoimmune disease, and chronic organ toxicity[48].
  • Vitamins: Doesn’t get much more ambiguous than this. “Vitamins” is probably referencing nutrients within the growth medium. This may be calcium chloride, which could lead to cancer, or certain bile acids that haven’t been properly studied[22].
  • Amino Acids: Added as a stabilizer to protect the vaccine from adverse environmental conditions. While we can’t be sure exactly which ingredient to which the manufacturer is referring, but commonly a synthesized, artificial peptide amino acid is included. Because we don’t know for sure the ingredient used here, we cannot be positive about the potential health effects. 
  • Mineral Salts: Aluminum is the most commonly used mineral salt in vaccines. Children exposed to aluminum adjuvants in early life are at a greater risk of body-wide inflammation and the development of autoimmune disease[3]. In addition, when the maternal aluminum load is increased, there is greater risk of the baby developing a heart defect[4].

Fluzone Ingredients:

  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].
  • Egg Proteins: Another word for ovalbumin, which is the main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Octylphenol Ethoxylate (Triton X-100): This is used to help inactivate the virus. Not much information exists about Triton X-100s safety in vaccines.
  • Sodium Phosphate-Buffered Isotonic Sodium Chloride: Sodium phosphate is used as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating. Phosphate additives have been linked to heart damage and kidney failure[18]. Sodium chloride is commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[14].
  • Sodium Chloride Solution: Commonly known as table salt. Injected sodium chloride has been documented as leading to kidney damage, failure, and even death[14].
  • Thimerosal: Composed of mercury, thimerosal is a preservative added to prolong the shelf-life of vaccines. Documentation of its potential health hazard to humans has been documented since the 1930s. When its toxicity was recognized, the FDA worked to rid the ingredient from topical products[27]. Adverse health effects linked to thimerosal include autism, tics, emotional disturbances, heart problems, and other neurological disorders[28,29].

FluLaval Ingredients:

  • Ovalbumin: The main protein in egg white, is added for its ability to produce a mild immune response. Is obviously dangerous for those allergic to eggs. A safe concentration for those with egg allergies has not been established[23].
  • Formaldehyde: Used to help inactivate, or kill, viruses, formaldehyde is determined a necessary ingredient in vaccines. Formaldehyde exposure has been known to adversely effect pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), development of birth defects, and premature birth[5]. Toxic effects associated with formaldehyde have been documented since 1975. The substance is also recognized as a known human carcinogen by the American Cancer Society[6].
  • Sodium Deoxycholate: A type of detergent added to “disrupt” the particles within the vaccine. Sodium deoxycholate has shown ability to break down cells and may even lead to the development of tumors and cancer[44,45].
  • A-Tocopheryl Hydrogen Succinate: Included as an adjuvant to help stimulate an immune response. Not much information exists about this ingredient’s safety in vaccines.
  • Polysorbate 80: Used as a stabilizer to help keep the vaccine at the chosen consistency. Animal tests have found polysorbate 80 capable of causing reproductive effects and even cancer[15]. In the unborn, it has shown ability to impact reproductive function, such as uterine and ovarian weight[16].
  • Thimerosal: Composed of mercury, thimerosal is a preservative added to prolong the shelf-life of vaccines. Documentation of its potential health hazard to humans has been documented since the 1930s. When its toxicity was recognized, the FDA worked to rid the ingredient from topical products[27]. Adverse health effects linked to thimerosal include autism, tics, emotional disturbances, heart problems, and other neurological disorders[28,29].

 

 

Conclusion

The medical community is extremely good at warning pregnant women of the foods, like deli meat and swordfish, that they should avoid, but they fail to properly inform expectant mothers of the potentially harmful ingredients lurking within the vaccines very newly recommended for them. For pregnant women, taking the time to educate yourself can prove extremely beneficial.

Until next time,
Savannah

 

 

 

References:

1. CDC Pregnant? Get Tdap in Your Third Trimester
https://www.cdc.gov/features/tdap-in-pregnancy/index.html
2. CDC Vaccine Excipient & Media Summary
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/appendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf
3. NCBI Comparative Safety of Vaccine Adjuvants: A Summary of Current Evidence and Future Needs
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615573/
4. Clinical and Molecular Teratology Association Between Maternal Aluminum Exposure and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615573/
5. NCBI Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203331/
6. American Cancer Society Known and Probably Human Carcinogens
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/general-info/known-and-probable-human-carcinogens.html
7. Saudi Food & Drug Authority U.S. FDA Warns Consumers Against Using Mommy’s Bliss Nipple Cream
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9. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience Clyclodextrins and Iatrogenic Hearing Loss: New Drugs with Significant Risk
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https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/glutaraldehyde/
11. United States Department of Labor Healthcare Wide Hazards: Glutaraldehyde
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13. Miller, Neil Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines is Unsafe
https://www.jpands.org/vol21no4/miller.pdf
14. The New England Journal of Medicine Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Noncritically Ill Adults
https://www.jpands.org/vol21no4/miller.pdf
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https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Potassium_dihydrogen_phosphate#section=Top
21. Journal of Gynecology and Women Healthcare Feticide with Intracardiac Potassium Chloride to Reduce Risk of Hemorrhage in Medical Termination of Pregnancy
http://article.scholarena.co/Feticide-with-Intracardiac-Potassium-Chlorid-to-Reduce-Risk-of-Hemorrhage-in-Medical-Termination-of-Pregnancy.pdf
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http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9923251
23. NCBI Ovalbumin Content of Influenza Vaccines
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927356/
24. JAMA Network Neomycin Toxicity Revisited 
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/article-abstract/581903
25. BMC Toxicity of Polymyxins: A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Old and Recent Studies
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26. EPA Beta-Propiolactone 
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/beta-propiolactone.pdf
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31. NCBI Universal Vaccines and Vaccine Platforms to Protect Against Influenza Viruses in Humans and Agriculture
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32. NCBI The MDCK Variety Pack: Choosing the Right Strain
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209442/
33. ScienceLab.com Material Safety Data Sheet
http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9923367
34. Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide
http://datasheets.scbt.com/sc-278833.pdf
35. ScienceDirect Endocrine-Disrupting Metabolites of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates – A Critical Review of Analytical Methods, Environmental Occurrences, Toxicity, and Regulation
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718312439
36. ScienceDIrect Antibodies to Squalene in Gulf War Syndrome
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0014480099922955
37. NCBI Recent Research on Gulf War Illness and Other Health Problems in Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War: Effects of Toxicant Exposures During Deployment 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4724528/
38. Santa Cruz Biotechnology Citric Acid Monohydrate
http://datasheets.scbt.com/sc-203327.pdf
39. South African Family Practice Aminoglycoside-Induced Hearing Deficits – A Review of Cochlear Ototoxicity
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20786190.2014.1002220
40. Lenntech Barium (Ba) 
https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ba.htm
41. American Journal of Epidemiology Steroids and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Complications
https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/153/11/1089/64676
42. ScienceDaily Cortisone can Increase Risk of Acute Pancreatitis 
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130225210321.htm
43. JAMA Opthalmology The Role of Gravity in Gentamicin-Induced Toxic Effects in a Rabbit Model
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/article-abstract/640868
44. NCBI Detergent Effects of Sodium Deoxycholate are a Major Feature of an Injectable Phosphatidylcholine Formulation Used for Localized Fat Dissolution
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45. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Promoting Effect of Sodium Deoxycholate on Colon Adenocarcinomas in Germfree Rats
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